1. The purpose of various types and functions.
2. Protégé of varying degrees of maturity.
3. Situations that various circumstances.
4. Facilities that have a variety of quality and kwantitasnya.
5. Personal and professional competence of teachers is different.
Because it is difficult to give a clear classification of each method has ever known in the teaching. Every need of classification is arbitrary in nature. More difficult to classify these methods in the value and effectiveness, because the method that "less good" at the hands of a teacher can be a method of 'excellent' in the hands of other teachers, and both methods will fail at the hands of other teachers who do not master the technique of execution.
In fact, many factors that cause is not always able to use methods that are considered most suitable for the purpose, situation, and others. Teachers are often forced to use the method of "second choice" or "third choice". The important thing noticed by the teacher in such circumstances is the limits of the advantages and disadvantages dipergunakannya methods, in order to formulate conclusions about the results of evaluation efforts.
Demonstrations and experiments are a very effective teaching method in helping students find answers to questions like: How do I make it? Composed and what material? Which way is best? How can know the truth?
With the demonstration as a teaching method meant that a teacher, an outsider who deliberately requested, or even students can show the entire class of a process, eg how the workings of a printer. The demonstration method is a method that is expository / learning methods that are give and take (the teacher gives knowledge to students). This method is quite effective because it helps the students to obtain an answer by observing a process or a particular event, where the activity is usually more than the teacher
With the experiment is intended that the teacher or a student trying to do something and observe the process and results of the experiments. If the method demonstration, more activity on the part of teachers, the direct experimental method involves the students doing experiments to find answers to the problems posed. This method is an essential element in the approach of inquiry and discovery (learning to find).
With the experiments we can get answers about: How do we know that is true? Which way is the best way? What will happen? Consisting of what material?
Implementation of this method can be implemented in the classroom as well as a special place that is destined for the implementation of an experiment / demonstration (lab).
In the implementation of the experimental method can be coupled with the demonstration.
A. When to use is?
Demonstration and experimental methods are used when a student or observer (observer) wants to know about
1. What is the process set it?
a. Set the size of the margin of a page so when the printed paper will be in accordance with the provisions.
b. Set the print quality settings on a printer.
2. How does the process make it?
For example demonstrates how to make a scientific report using Microsoft Word application, starting from creating a new document to pencetakkannya stage.
3. How does the process work?
On a computer technician course, teachers use pictures of computer hardware parts and explain the relationship of the tools with each other and how the workings of the mechanism of the device. Then the device was shown to students, and students are given the opportunity to observe those devices.
4. How does the process work or use it?
In practice using the weapon, the instructor intends to teach how to use weapons. The students get together and see how the instructor demonstrates the use of weapons, by doing various acts of observation
5. Consisting of what? Materials / tools needed anything?
To know a thing or devices that consist of multiple materials or equipment, it's better if the students examine the parts or materials to be used. For example, students in the lesson Delphi DCC, would be better if students were introduced about a program that will be used, the required computer specifications, and so forth.
6. Which way is better?
In the introduction of a computer, the instructor demonstrates the ways in which good and bad, for example how to turn off the computer to perform steps [Start]> [Turn Off Computer]> [Turn off]> [Turn off monitor and stabilizer] and the second with a direct way to turn off by pressing the Power On / Off on the stabilizer, by explaining the advantages and disadvantages of each way and give advice on which one is better made.
7. How do we know the truth?
Junior high school students in Natural Sciences lessons learned that air consists of ± 25% acid. To prove this theory, the teacher took the candles, glasses and plates containing colored water. Candles lit on the plate that contains water and then covered by glass, it turns out the candle goes out and water rose into the glass ± 1 / 5 cup. In this way the teacher has demonstrated something proving the truth of things and how these principles will also heighten the interest and attention of students.
B. Pros and Cons
The advantage of a method of demonstration.
1. Attention students can focus on things that are considered important by the teachers so that important things can be observed as necessary. Attention students more easily focus on the learning process and not on other things.
2. Can reduce errors compared to just read in the book, because students have a clear picture mempenoleh and observations.
3. When students participate actively experimenting, the students will gain practical experiences to develop skills and gain recognition and appreciation from friends and teachers.
4. Some of the problems that led to students' questions can be answered at the time observing the demonstration / experiment.
The weakness of the method demonstration.
1. Comprehension of each student is different, so the teacher should repeat the same section so that students can follow lessons.
2. The time required for teaching and learning process will be longer than the lecture method.
3. Demonstrations will be the methods that are less well if the tool was demonstrated not to be observed closely by the student. For example, the device is too small or explanations that are not clear.
4. Demonstrations become ineffective if not accompanied by an activity in which students themselves can come to experiment and make it a rewarding activity.
5. Not all things can be demonstrated in the classroom. For example, the tools that are very large or located in another place far away from the classroom, or materials that are not tangible such as freon gas.
6. Sometimes, when a device was brought into the classroom and then demonstrated, students see a different process with the process if it is in the actual situation.
How teachers can plan an effective demonstration?
1. Formulate a clear purpose and point of skill or activity that is expected to be achieved or implemented by the students themselves when the demonstration ended.
a. Consider whether the methods used were reasonable and is the most effective method to achieve the objectives that have been planned.
b. Are the tools necessary for the demonstration can be obtained easily, and whether those devices have been tried prior to the time of the demonstration did not fail.
c. Does the amount of equipment / materials enables organized demonstrations clearly?
2. Establish an outline of the steps which will be held demonstrations. And preferably before the demonstration conducted by teachers have been tried first in order not to fail in time.
3. Take into account the time required. Apakali available time to allow students to pose questions and comments during and after dernonstrasi. Prepare questions to students to rnerangsang observation.
4. During the demonstration take place we ask ourselves whether:
a. Descriptions that can be heard clearly by the students.
b. The equipment has been placed in a good position so that every student can see clearly.
c. It should be recommended to students to make notes as necessary with time taste.
5. Establish a plan to assess student progress. Often the need to advance the discussions held and the students tried out more demonstrations and experiments to gain better dexterity.
How many advantages and limits of the experiment.
1. Students can actively take part to experiment for himself. Students not only see someone accomplish something by doing experiments, but also direct it mernperoleh cleverness-cleverness is required.
2. Students have the opportunity as much as for rnelaksanakan Amount of the steps in the ways of scientific thinking. Predictions or hypotheses can be tested for validity by collecting data and then interpret the results of observation and the last students to make kesimpulan.kesimpulan from these observations.
Restrictions demonstration method.
1. Inadequate equipment caused not every student gets the opportunity to conduct experiments.
2. If the experiment niemerlukan for long periods, students must wait for the next meeting to continue the lesson.
3. Lack of preparation and experience of the student will create difficulties in conducting experiments.
D. Some suggestions to carry out experiments.
- Explain as clearly as possible learning goals for students, so that students know the questions to be answered by experiment.
- Discuss with students the procedures or steps which is considered his best to solve rnasalah in experiments, as well as the necessary materials, the variables that need controlled and the things that need to be recorded.
- Helping students to acquire the necessary materials.
- After the experiment is completed the students compare their results with the experimental results of others and discuss if there are differences or errors.